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Erythematous Rash Following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Wed, 11/29/2017 - 16:49
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Erythematous Rash Following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

JAMA. 2017 Nov 14;318(18):1822-1823

Authors: Shi CR, Plovanich M, Burgin S

PMID: 29136426 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Hypoxia-preconditioned mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate ischemia/reperfusion-induced lung injury.

Wed, 11/29/2017 - 16:49
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Hypoxia-preconditioned mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate ischemia/reperfusion-induced lung injury.

PLoS One. 2017;12(11):e0187637

Authors: Liu YY, Chiang CH, Hung SC, Chian CF, Tsai CL, Chen WC, Zhang H

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia preconditioning has been proven to be an effective method to enhance the therapeutic action of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, the beneficial effects of hypoxic MSCs in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) lung injury have yet to be investigated. In this study, we hypothesized that the administration of hypoxic MSCs would have a positive therapeutic impact on I/R lung injury at molecular, cellular, and functional levels.
METHODS: I/R lung injury was induced in isolated and perfused rat lungs. Hypoxic MSCs were administered in perfusate at a low (2.5×105 cells) and high (1×106 cells) dose. Rats ventilated with a low tidal volume of 6 ml/kg served as controls. Hemodynamics, lung injury indices, inflammatory responses and activation of apoptotic pathways were determined.
RESULTS: I/R induced permeability pulmonary edema with capillary leakage and increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), pro-inflammatory cytokines, adhesion molecules, cytosolic cytochrome C, and activated MAPK, NF-κB, and apoptotic pathways. The administration of a low dose of hypoxic MSCs effectively attenuated I/R pathologic lung injury score by inhibiting inflammatory responses associated with the generation of ROS and anti-apoptosis effect, however this effect was not observed with a high dose of hypoxic MSCs. Mechanistically, a low dose of hypoxic MSCs down-regulated P38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling but upregulated glutathione, prostaglandin E2, IL-10, mitochondrial cytochrome C and Bcl-2. MSCs infused at a low dose migrated into interstitial and alveolar spaces and bronchial trees, while MSCs infused at a high dose aggregated in the microcirculation and induced pulmonary embolism.
CONCLUSIONS: Hypoxic MSCs can quickly migrate into extravascular lung tissue and adhere to other inflammatory or structure cells and attenuate I/R lung injury through anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. However, the dose of MSCs needs to be optimized to prevent pulmonary embolism and thrombosis.

PMID: 29117205 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Renal transplant, previous breast cancer, and progressive breathlessness.

Wed, 11/29/2017 - 16:49
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Renal transplant, previous breast cancer, and progressive breathlessness.

BMJ. 2017 11 02;359:j4773

Authors: Nachiappan S, Howlett DC

PMID: 29097402 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Intrapancreatic injection of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells alleviates hyperglycemia and modulates the macrophage state in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice.

Wed, 11/29/2017 - 16:49
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Intrapancreatic injection of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells alleviates hyperglycemia and modulates the macrophage state in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice.

PLoS One. 2017;12(10):e0186637

Authors: Murai N, Ohtaki H, Watanabe J, Xu Z, Sasaki S, Yagura K, Shioda S, Nagasaka S, Honda K, Izumizaki M

Abstract
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a progressive disease caused by the destruction of pancreatic β-cells, resulting in insulin dependency and hyperglycemia. While transplanted bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BMMSCs) have been explored as an alternative therapeutic approach for diseases, the choice of delivery route may be a critical factor determining their sustainability. This study evaluated the effects of intrapancreatic and intravenous injection of human BMMSCs (hBMMSCs) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mouse model. C57/BL6 mice were intraperitoneally injected with 115 mg/kg STZ on day 0. hBMMSCs (1 × 106 cells) or vehicle were injected into the pancreas or jugular vein on day 7. Intrapancreatic, but not intravenous, hBMMSC injection significantly reduced blood glucose levels on day 28 compared with vehicle injection by the same route. This glucose-lowering effect was not induced by intrapancreatic injection of human fibroblasts as the xenograft control. Intrapancreatically injected fluorescence-labeled hBMMSCs were observed in the intra- and extra-lobular spaces of the pancreas, and intravenously injected cells were in the lung region, although the number of cells mostly decreased within 2 weeks of injection. For hBMMSCs injected twice into the pancreatic region on days 7 and 28, the injected mice had further reduced blood glucose to borderline diabetic levels on day 56. Animals injected with hBMMSCs twice exhibited increases in the plasma insulin level, number and size of islets, insulin-positive proportion of the total pancreas area, and intensity of insulin staining compared with vehicle-injected animals. We found a decrease of Iba1-positive cells in islets and an increase of CD206-positive cells in both the endocrine and exocrine pancreas. The hBMMSC injection also reduced the number of CD40-positive cells merged with glucagon immunoreactions in the islets. These results suggest that intrapancreatic injection may be a better delivery route of hBMMSCs for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

PMID: 29073149 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Metastatic melanoma imaging using a novel Tc-99m-labeled lactam-cyclized alpha-MSH peptide.

Wed, 11/29/2017 - 16:49
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Metastatic melanoma imaging using a novel Tc-99m-labeled lactam-cyclized alpha-MSH peptide.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2017 Nov 15;27(22):4952-4955

Authors: Liu L, Xu J, Yang J, Feng C, Miao Y

Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the metastatic melanoma imaging property of 99mTc(EDDA)-HYNIC-Aoc-Nle-CycMSHhex {hydrazinonicotinamide-8-aminooctanoic acid-Nle-c[Asp-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-Lys]-CONH2}. HYNIC-Aoc-Nle-CycMSHhex was synthesized using fluorenylmethyloxy carbonyl (Fmoc) chemistry. The IC50 value of HYNIC-Aoc-Nle-CycMSHhex was 0.78 ± 0.13 nM for B16/F10 melanoma cells. 99mTc(EDDA)-HYNIC-Aoc-Nle-CycMSHhex displayed significantly higher uptake (14.26 ± 2.74 and 10.45 ± 2.31% ID/g) in B16/F10 metastatic melanoma-bearing lung than that in normal lung (0.90 ± 0.15 and 0.53 ± 0.14% ID/g) at 2 and 4 h post-injection, respectively. B16/F10 pulmonary metastatic melanoma lesions were clearly visualized by SPECT/CT using 99mTc(EDDA)-HYNIC-Aoc-Nle-CycMSHhex as an imaging probe at 2 h post-injection, underscoring its potential as an imaging probe for metastatic melanoma detection.

PMID: 29054361 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

MetaLnc9 Facilitates Lung Cancer Metastasis via a PGK1-Activated AKT/mTOR Pathway.

Wed, 11/29/2017 - 16:49
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MetaLnc9 Facilitates Lung Cancer Metastasis via a PGK1-Activated AKT/mTOR Pathway.

Cancer Res. 2017 Nov 01;77(21):5782-5794

Authors: Yu T, Zhao Y, Hu Z, Li J, Chu D, Zhang J, Li Z, Chen B, Zhang X, Pan H, Li S, Lin H, Liu L, Yan M, He X, Yao M

Abstract
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) participate in carcinogenesis and tumor progression in lung cancer. Here, we report the identification of a lncRNA signature associated with metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In particular, elevated expression of LINC00963 (MetaLnc9) in human NSCLC specimens correlated with poor prognosis, promoted migration and invasion of NSCLC cells in vitro, and enhanced lung metastasis formation in vivo Mechanistic investigations showed that MetaLnc9 interacted with the glycolytic kinase PGK1 and prevented its ubiquitination in NSCLC cells, leading to activation of the oncogenic AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. MetaLnc9 also interacted with P54nrb/NonO (NONO) to help mediate the activity of CRTC, a coactivator for the transcription factor CREB, reinforcing a positive feedback loop for metastasis. Taken together, our results establish MetaLnc9 as a driver of metastasis and a candidate therapeutic target for treating advanced NSCLC. Cancer Res; 77(21); 5782-94. ©2017 AACR.

PMID: 28923857 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A Novel Long Non-Coding RNA, SOX21-AS1, Indicates a Poor Prognosis and Promotes Lung Adenocarcinoma Proliferation.

Wed, 11/29/2017 - 16:49
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A Novel Long Non-Coding RNA, SOX21-AS1, Indicates a Poor Prognosis and Promotes Lung Adenocarcinoma Proliferation.

Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;42(5):1857-1869

Authors: Lu X, Huang C, He X, Liu X, Ji J, Zhang E, Wang W, Guo R

Abstract
BACKGROUND: In recent years, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to be a novel class of regulators of cancer biological processes. Although lncRNAs are dysregulated in numerous cancer types, limited data are available on the expression profiles and potential functions of lncRNAs in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). This study evaluated the expression and biological roles of lncRNA SOX21 antisense RNA 1 (SOX21-AS1) in LUAD.
METHODS: Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to detect the expression levels of SOX21-AS1 in 68 pairs of LUAD tissues and corresponding non-tumor tissues. The effect of SOX21-AS1 on proliferation was evaluated by MTT, colony formation, EdU assays, flow-cytometric analysis and in vivo tumor formation assays. Real-time PCR, western-blot and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the mRNA and protein expression of p57.
RESULTS: Higher expression levels of SOX21-AS1 positively correlated with tumor size and advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. Multivariate analyses indicated that SOX21-AS1 expression could serve as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival of LUAD. Furthermore, knockdown of SOX21-AS1 significantly inhibited LUAD cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo and induced cell cycle phase arrest and cell apoptosis. Importantly, through qRT-PCR and western blot analysis, we found that inhibition of SOX21-AS1 remarkably induced p57 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our study demonstrates that SOX21-AS1 is involved in the development and progression of LUAD and that SOX21-AS1 may be a potential diagnostic factor as well as a target for new therapies for patients with LUAD.

PMID: 28873379 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Magnolol Inhibits the Growth of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer via Inhibiting Microtubule Polymerization.

Wed, 11/29/2017 - 16:49
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Magnolol Inhibits the Growth of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer via Inhibiting Microtubule Polymerization.

Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;42(5):1789-1801

Authors: Shen J, Ma H, Zhang T, Liu H, Yu L, Li G, Li H, Hu M

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The tubulin/microtubule system, which is an integral component of the cytoskeleton, plays an essential role in mitosis. Targeting mitotic progression by disturbing microtubule dynamics is a rational strategy for cancer treatment.
METHODS: Microtubule polymerization assay was performed to examine the effect of Magnolol (a novel natural phenolic compound isolated from Magnolia obovata) on cellular microtubule polymerization in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Cell cycle analysis, mitotic index assay, cell proliferation assay, colony formation assay, western blotting analysis of cell cycle regulators, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, and live/dead viability staining were carried out to investigate the Magnolol's inhibitory effect on proliferation and viability of NSCLS cells in vitro. Xenograft model of human A549 NSCLC tumor was used to determine the Magnolol's efficacy in vivo.
RESULTS: Magnolol treatment effectively inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation of NSCLC cells. Further study proved that Magnolol induced the mitotic phase arrest and inhibited G2/M progression in a dose-dependent manner, which were mechanistically associated with expression alteration of a series of cell cycle regulators. Furthermore, Magnolol treatment disrupted the cellular microtubule organization via inhibiting the polymerization of microtubule. We also found treatment with NSCLC cells with Magnolol resulted in apoptosis activation through a p53-independent pathway, and autophgy induction via down-regulation of the Akt/mTOR pathway. Finally, Magnolol treatment significantly suppressed the NSCLC tumor growth in mouse xenograft model in vivo.
CONCLUSION: These findings identify Magnolol as a promising candidate with anti-microtubule polymerization activity for NSCLC treatment.

PMID: 28746938 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Involvement of PI3K/Akt pathway in the inhibition of hepatocarcinoma cell invasion and metastasis induced by SASH1 through downregulating Shh-Gli1 signaling.

Wed, 11/29/2017 - 16:49
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Involvement of PI3K/Akt pathway in the inhibition of hepatocarcinoma cell invasion and metastasis induced by SASH1 through downregulating Shh-Gli1 signaling.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2017 Aug;89:95-100

Authors: Sun C, Zhang Z, He P, Zhou Y, Xie X

Abstract
The SASH1 gene is discovered as a tumor suppressor recently. However, the molecular mechanisms of SASH1 in hepatocarcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. In present studies, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of SASH1 on cell invasion and metastasis of hepatocarcinoma in vivo and in vitro. In this study, SASH1 overexpression HCC cell lines were treated with purmorphamine (0, 0.5, 1, 2μmol/l). Western blot and qRT-PCR were used to examine the related gene expression of EMT markers and the Shh-Gli1 and PI3K/Akt-dependent pathway. Cell migration and invasion were assessed by Transwell assay. In addition, a mice SASH1 overexpression HCC orthotopic xenograft model was established and treated with purmorphamine or 740Y-P or PDGF. Tumor volume was assessed, and H&E staining was applied to histopathologic analysis. The results showed that purmorphamine exposure significantly increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of Shh and Gli1 in a dose-dependent manner in the SASH1 overexpression HepG2 and HCCLM3 cells. Besides, purmorphamine promoted the migration and invasion of SASH1 overexpression HCC cells, as well as the EMT progress. Moreover, purmorphamine significantly increased the synthesis of PI3K and pAkt in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the invasion and migration abilities were also improved by treatment with 740Y-P or PDGF in the SASH1 overexpression HCC cells. Additionally, the agonists promoted tumor growth and intrahepatic and pulmonary metastasis of the orthotopic transplantation tumors grown from SASH1 overexpression HCC cells in vivo. In conclusion, SASH1 may inhibit hepatocarcinoma cell invasion and metastasis through down-regulating the Shh-Gli1 and PI3K-AKT pathways in vivo and in vitro.

PMID: 28600143 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: Where Have All the Stem Cells Gone?: Origin and (Potential) Function of Resident Lung Stem Cells.

Wed, 11/29/2017 - 16:49
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Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: Where Have All the Stem Cells Gone?: Origin and (Potential) Function of Resident Lung Stem Cells.

Chest. 2017 Nov;152(5):1043-1052

Authors: Möbius MA, Thébaud B

Abstract
Celebrating its 50th anniversary in 2017, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)-the chronic lung disease of prematurity that follows ventilator and oxygen therapy for acute respiratory failure-remains the most frequent complication of extreme prematurity. Survival of premature infants born at increasingly earlier stages of gestation has made the prevention of lung injury increasingly challenging. BPD is postulated to be a misdirection of many functions in the developing lung, including growth factor signalling and matrix as well as cellular composition, resulting in impaired alveolar and lung vascular growth. Despite improvements in understanding the mechanisms that regulate normal lung development, BPD remains without therapies. Insights into stem cell biology have identified the repair potential of stem cells. Promising preclinical studies demonstrated the lung protective effects of stem cell-based therapies in animal models mimicking BPD, leading to early-phase clinical trials. Although the time is ripe to conduct well-designed early-phase clinical trials, much more needs to be learned about the biology of these cells to develop safe, efficient, high-quality, clinical-grade cell products. Stem cells are essential for normal organ development, maintenance, and repair. It is therefore biologically plausible that exhaustion/dysfunction of resident lung stem cells contributes to the inability of the immature lung to repair itself. Understanding how normal lung stem cells function and how these cells are perturbed in BPD may prove useful in designing superior cell products with enhanced repair capabilities to ensure the successful translation of basic research into clinical practice.

PMID: 28479114 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Magnetic targeting as a strategy to enhance therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stromal cells.

Wed, 11/29/2017 - 16:49
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Magnetic targeting as a strategy to enhance therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stromal cells.

Stem Cell Res Ther. 2017 Mar 09;8(1):58

Authors: Silva LH, Cruz FF, Morales MM, Weiss DJ, Rocco PR

Abstract
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been extensively investigated in the field of regenerative medicine. It is known that the success of MSC-based therapies depends primarily on effective cell delivery to the target site where they will secrete vesicles and soluble factors with immunomodulatory and potentially reparative properties. However, some lesions are located in sites that are difficult to access, such as the heart, spinal cord, and joints. Additionally, low MSC retention at target sites makes cell therapy short-lasting and, therefore, less effective. In this context, the magnetic targeting technique has emerged as a new strategy to aid delivery, increase retention, and enhance the effects of MSCs. This approach uses magnetic nanoparticles to magnetize MSCs and static magnetic fields to guide them in vivo, thus promoting more focused, effective, and lasting retention of MSCs at the target site. In the present review, we discuss the magnetic targeting technique, its principles, and the materials most commonly used; we also discuss its potential for MSC enhancement, and safety concerns that should be addressed before it can be applied in clinical practice.

PMID: 28279201 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The neuropilin 2 isoform NRP2b uniquely supports TGFβ-mediated progression in lung cancer.

Wed, 11/29/2017 - 16:49
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The neuropilin 2 isoform NRP2b uniquely supports TGFβ-mediated progression in lung cancer.

Sci Signal. 2017 Jan 17;10(462):

Authors: Gemmill RM, Nasarre P, Nair-Menon J, Cappuzzo F, Landi L, D'Incecco A, Uramoto H, Yoshida T, Haura EB, Armeson K, Drabkin HA

Abstract
Neuropilins (NRP1 and NRP2) are co-receptors for heparin-binding growth factors and class 3 semaphorins. Different isoforms of NRP1 and NRP2 are produced by alternative splicing. We found that in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signaling preferentially increased the abundance of NRP2b. NRP2b and NRP2a differ only in their carboxyl-terminal regions. Although the presence of NRP2b inhibited cultured cell proliferation and primary tumor growth, NRP2b enhanced cellular migration, invasion into Matrigel, and tumorsphere formation in cultured cells in response to TGFβ signaling and promoted metastasis in xenograft mouse models. These effects of overexpressed NRP2b contrast with the effects of overexpressed NRP2a. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced phosphorylation of the kinase AKT was specifically promoted by NRP2b, whereas inhibiting the HGF receptor MET attenuated NRP2b-dependent cell migration. Unlike NRP2a, NRP2b did not bind the PDZ domain scaffolding protein GAIP carboxyl terminus-interacting protein (GIPC1) and only weakly recruited phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), potentially explaining the difference between NRP2b-mediated and NRP2a-mediated effects. Analysis of NSCLC patient tumors showed that NRP2b abundance correlated with that of the immune cell checkpoint receptor ligand PD-L1 as well as with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotypes in the tumors, acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, disease progression, and poor survival in patients. NRP2b knockdown attenuated the acquisition of resistance to the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib in cultured NSCLC cells. Thus, in NSCLC, NRP2b contributed to the oncogenic response to TGFβ and correlated with tumor progression in patients.

PMID: 28096505 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The lncRNAs involved in mouse airway allergic inflammation following induced pluripotent stem cell-mesenchymal stem cell treatment.

Wed, 11/29/2017 - 16:49
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The lncRNAs involved in mouse airway allergic inflammation following induced pluripotent stem cell-mesenchymal stem cell treatment.

Stem Cell Res Ther. 2017 Jan 06;8(1):2

Authors: Wang SY, Fan XL, Yu QN, Deng MX, Sun YQ, Gao WX, Li CL, Shi JB, Fu QL

Abstract
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) alleviated asthma inflammation in mice. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) were recently reported as being involved in the immune responses. However, whether lncRNAs are associated with iPSC-MSC immunomodulation in allergic inflammation is still unclear.
METHODS: Mice were induced into an asthmatic state and received treatment consisting of iPSC-MSCs. Memory T cells isolated from sensitized mice were challenged and co-cultured with iPSC-MSCs in vitro. Total RNA from the lungs and separated T cells were processed with an lncRNA/mRNA microarray. A series of bioinformatics technologies were used to screen the target lncRNAs.
RESULTS: iPSC-MSCs significantly prevented asthma inflammation and decreased the Th2 cytokine levels. Over 1300 lncRNAs were differentially expressed after the induction of asthma, and 846 or 4176 lncRNAs were differentially expressed with iPSC-MSC treatment in mice or in vitro, respectively. After overlapping the differentially expressed lncRNAs produced in a similar manner in mice and in vitro, 23 lncRNAs and 96 mRNAs were selected, in which 58 protein-coding genes were predicted to be potential targets of the 23 lncRNAs. Furthermore, using a series of bioinformatics technologies, 9 lncRNAs co-expressed with the most differentially expressed mRNAs, which were enriched in terms of the immune response, were screened out via Pearson's correlation coefficient with mRNAs that were involved with inflammatory cytokines and receptors. lncRNAs MM9LINCRNAEXON12105+ and AK089315 were finally emphasized via quantitative real-time PCR validation.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that aberrant lncRNA profiles were present after asthma induction and iPSC-MSC treatment, suggesting potential targets of allergic inflammation and iPSC-MSC-mediated immunomodulation.

PMID: 28057064 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL mediates nuclear translocation of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

Wed, 11/29/2017 - 16:49
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The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL mediates nuclear translocation of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

Sci Signal. 2017 Jan 03;10(460):

Authors: Brand TM, Iida M, Corrigan KL, Braverman CM, Coan JP, Flanigan BG, Stein AP, Salgia R, Rolff J, Kimple RJ, Wheeler DL

Abstract
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a therapeutic target in patients with various cancers. Unfortunately, resistance to EGFR-targeted therapeutics is common. Previous studies identified two mechanisms of resistance to the EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab. Nuclear translocation of EGFR bypasses the inhibitory effects of cetuximab, and the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL mediates cetuximab resistance by maintaining EGFR activation and downstream signaling. Thus, we hypothesized that AXL mediated the nuclear translocation of EGFR in the setting of cetuximab resistance. Cetuximab-resistant clones of non-small cell lung cancer in culture and patient-derived xenografts in mice had increased abundance of AXL and nuclear EGFR (nEGFR). Cellular fractionation analysis, super-resolution microscopy, and electron microscopy revealed that genetic loss of AXL reduced the accumulation of nEGFR. SRC family kinases (SFKs) and HER family ligands promote the nuclear translocation of EGFR. We found that AXL knockdown reduced the expression of the genes encoding the SFK family members YES and LYN and the ligand neuregulin-1 (NRG1). AXL knockdown also decreased the interaction between EGFR and the related receptor HER3 and accumulation of HER3 in the nucleus. Overexpression of LYN and NRG1 in cells depleted of AXL resulted in accumulation of nEGFR, rescuing the deficit induced by lack of AXL. Collectively, these data uncover a previously unrecognized role for AXL in regulating the nuclear translocation of EGFR and suggest that AXL-mediated SFK and NRG1 expression promote this process.

PMID: 28049763 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Evaluating mesenchymal stem cell therapy for sepsis with preclinical meta-analyses prior to initiating a first-in-human trial.

Wed, 11/29/2017 - 16:49
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Evaluating mesenchymal stem cell therapy for sepsis with preclinical meta-analyses prior to initiating a first-in-human trial.

Elife. 2016 Nov 17;5:

Authors: Lalu MM, Sullivan KJ, Mei SH, Moher D, Straus A, Fergusson DA, Stewart DJ, Jazi M, MacLeod M, Winston B, Marshall J, Hutton B, Walley KR, McIntyre L

Abstract
Evaluation of preclinical evidence prior to initiating early-phase clinical studies has typically been performed by selecting individual studies in a non-systematic process that may introduce bias. Thus, in preparation for a first-in-human trial of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for septic shock, we applied systematic review methodology to evaluate all published preclinical evidence. We identified 20 controlled comparison experiments (980 animals from 18 publications) of in vivo sepsis models. Meta-analysis demonstrated that MSC treatment of preclinical sepsis significantly reduced mortality over a range of experimental conditions (odds ratio 0.27, 95% confidence interval 0.18-0.40, latest timepoint reported for each study). Risk of bias was unclear as few studies described elements such as randomization and no studies included an appropriately calculated sample size. Moreover, the presence of publication bias resulted in a ~30% overestimate of effect and threats to validity limit the strength of our conclusions. This novel prospective application of systematic review methodology serves as a template to evaluate preclinical evidence prior to initiating first-in-human clinical studies.

PMID: 27870924 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The D-form of a novel heparan binding peptide decreases cytomegalovirus infection in vivo and in vitro.

Wed, 11/29/2017 - 16:49
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The D-form of a novel heparan binding peptide decreases cytomegalovirus infection in vivo and in vitro.

Antiviral Res. 2016 Nov;135:15-23

Authors: Pitt EA, Dogra P, Patel RS, Williams A, Wall JS, Sparer TE

Abstract
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in utero can lead to congenital sensory neural hearing loss and mental retardation. Reactivation or primary infection can increase the morbidity and mortality in immune suppressed transplant recipients and AIDS patients. The current standard of care for HCMV disease is nucleoside analogs, which can be nephrotoxic. In addition resistance to current treatments is becoming increasingly common. In an effort to develop novel CMV treatments, we tested the effectiveness of the D-form of a novel heparan sulfate binding peptide, p5RD, at reducing infection of ganciclovir (GCV) resistant HCMVs in vitro and MCMV in vivo. HCMV infection was reduced by greater than 90% when cells were pretreated with p5RD. Because p5RD acts by a mechanism unrelated to those used by current antivirals, it was effective at reducing GCV resistant HCMVs by 85%. We show that p5RD is resistant to common proteases and serum inactivation, which likely contributed to its ability to significantly reduced infection of peritoneal exudate cells and viral loads in the spleen and the lungs in vivo. The ability of p5RD to reduce HCMV infectivity in vitro including GCV resistant HCMVs and MCMV infection in vivo suggests that this peptide could be a novel anti-CMV therapeutic.

PMID: 27678155 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Therapeutic effects of adipose-derived stem cells pretreated with pioglitazone in an emphysema mouse model.

Wed, 11/29/2017 - 16:49
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Therapeutic effects of adipose-derived stem cells pretreated with pioglitazone in an emphysema mouse model.

Exp Mol Med. 2016 Oct 21;48(10):e266

Authors: Hong Y, Kim YS, Hong SH, Oh YM

Abstract
There is no therapy currently available that influences the natural history of disease progression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although stem cell therapy is considered a potential therapeutic option in COPD, there are no clinical trials proving definitive therapeutic effects in patients with COPD. Recently, it was reported that pioglitazone might potentiate the therapeutic effects of stem cells in patients with heart or liver disease. To test the capacity of pioglitazone pretreatment of stem cells for emphysema repair, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of pioglitazone-pretreated human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) on elastase-induced or cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in mice. We also investigated the mechanisms of action of pioglitazone-pretreated ASCs. Pioglitazone-pretreated ASCs had a more potent therapeutic effect than non-pretreated ASCs in the repair of both elastase-induced and smoke-induced emphysema models (mean linear intercept, 78.1±2.5 μm vs 83.2±2.6 μm in elastase models and 75.6±1.4 μm vs 80.5±3.2 μm in smoke models, P<0.05). Furthermore, we showed that pioglitazone-pretreated ASCs increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production both in vitro and in mouse lungs in the smoke-induced emphysema model. Pioglitazone-pretreated ASCs may have more potent therapeutic effects than non-pretreated ASCs in emphysema mouse models.

PMID: 27765950 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Recanalization of Chronic Total Occlusions in Patients With Previous Coronary Bypass Surgery and Consideration of Retrograde Access via Saphenous Vein Grafts.

Wed, 11/29/2017 - 16:49
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Recanalization of Chronic Total Occlusions in Patients With Previous Coronary Bypass Surgery and Consideration of Retrograde Access via Saphenous Vein Grafts.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2016 Jul;9(7):

Authors: Dautov R, Manh Nguyen C, Altisent O, Gibrat C, Rinfret S

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of native coronary chronic total occlusions (CTOs) after coronary artery bypass grafts (CABGs) is higher than in non-CABG population. We examined outcomes of CTO percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) post-CABG versus without CABG. Then, we looked at feasibility and outcomes of retrograde CTO PCI via patent or occluded saphenous vein graft.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared patient and procedural characteristics of 470 CTO cases treated from January 2010 to December 2015 depending on history of CABG. We assessed major adverse cardiac events, including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, ischemia-driven target-vessel revascularization, or reocclusion 1 year after successful CTO PCI in patients treated before February 2015. Post-CABG patients (175 cases) had a higher J-CTO score (2.5 versus 2.1; P=0.002). In-hospital complications were similar, although the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy was higher in post-CABG patients (4.6% versus 1%; P=0.01). With multivariable analysis, post-CABG status was associated with higher incidence of 1-year major adverse cardiac event (hazards ratio=2.2; P=0.02). As a second level analysis, we looked at the feasibility and safety of CTO PCI via saphenous vein grafts (19% of post-CABG cases) versus collateral channels (36%) versus with an antegrade-only approach (45%), and assessed short-term outcomes and complications. High success was achieved in the saphenous vein graft group. In-hospital events were similar in the 3 groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Post-CABG CTO PCI is associated with similar high success and low complications compared with CTO PCI in patients who never had CABG. However, it is associated with higher recurrent events at 1 year. To achieve high success rate, use of saphenous vein grafts as retrograde conduits seems to be safe and effective.

PMID: 27418611 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Pulmonary infection caused by Talaromyces purpurogenus in a patient with multiple myeloma.

Wed, 11/29/2017 - 16:49
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Pulmonary infection caused by Talaromyces purpurogenus in a patient with multiple myeloma.

Infez Med. 2016 Jun 01;24(2):153-7

Authors: Atalay A, Koc AN, Akyol G, Cakir N, Kaynar L, Ulu-Kilic A

Abstract
A 66-year-old female patient with multiple myeloma (MM) was admitted to the emergency service on 29.09.2014 with an inability to walk, and urinary and faecal incontinence. She had previously undergone autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) twice. The patient was hospitalized at the Department of Haematology. Further investigations showed findings suggestive of a spinal mass at the T5-T6-T7 level, and a mass lesion in the iliac fossa. The mass lesion was resected and needle biopsy was performed during a colonoscopy. Examination of the specimens revealed plasmacytoma. The patient also had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and was suffering from respiratory distress. After consultation with an infectious diseases specialist the patient was placed on an intravenous antibiotherapy with piperacillin/tazobactam (4.5g x 3) on 17.10.2014. During piperacillin/tazobactam treatment, the patient suffered from drowsiness, her general condition deteriorated, and she had rales on auscultation of the lungs. The patient underwent thoracic computerized tomography (CT) which showed areas of focal consolidation in the lower lobes of the two lungs (more prominent on the left), and increased medullary density. The radiology report suggested that fungal infection could not be ruled out based on the CT images. The sputum sample was sent to the mycology laboratory and direct microscopic examination performed with Gram and Giemsa staining showed the presence of septate hyphae; therefore voriconazole was added to the treatment. Slow growing (at day 10), grey-greenish colonies and red pigment formation were observed in all culture media except cycloheximide-containing Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) medium. The isolate was initially considered to be Talaromyces marneffei. However, it was subsequently identified by DNA sequencing analysis as Talaromyces purpurogenus. The patient was discharged at her own wish, as she was willing to continue treatment in her hometown. Unfortunately, the patient died on December 8, 2014. In conclusion, apart from T. marneffei, less common strains such as T. purpurogenus should be considered when clinical samples obtained from patients with haematologic/oncologic disorders show fungal colonies that form red pigments on the culture media and when microscopic examination suggests a morphological appearance similar to Penicillium species.

PMID: 27367328 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Human mesenchymal stem cells attenuate early damage in a ventilated pig model of acute lung injury.

Wed, 11/29/2017 - 16:49
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Human mesenchymal stem cells attenuate early damage in a ventilated pig model of acute lung injury.

Stem Cell Res. 2016 Jul;17(1):25-31

Authors: Moodley Y, Sturm M, Shaw K, Shimbori C, Tan DB, Kolb M, Graham R

Abstract
Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is a major cause of global morbidity and mortality. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have shown promise in treating inflammatory lung conditions. We hypothesised that human MSC (hMSC) can improve ALI/ARDS through their anti-inflammatory actions. We subjected pigs (n=6) to intravenous oleic acid (OA) injury, ventilation and hMSC infusion, while the controls (n=5) had intravenous OA, ventilation and an infusion vehicle control. hMSC were infused 1h after the administration of OA. The animals were monitored for additional 4h. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), a transcription factor that mediates several inflammatory pathways was reduced in hMSC treated pigs compared to controls (p=0.04). There was no significant difference in lung injury, assessed by histological scoring in hMSC treated pigs versus controls (p=0.063). There was no difference in neutrophil counts between hMSC-treated pigs and controls. Within 4h, there was no difference in the levels of IL-10 and IL-8 pre- and post-treatment with hMSC. In addition, there was no difference in hemodynamics, lung mechanics or arterial blood gases between hMSC treated animals and controls. Subsequent studies are required to determine if the observed decrease in inflammatory transcription factors will translate into improvement in inflammation and in physiological parameters over the long term.

PMID: 27231985 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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